Fundamentality between Metaphysics and Physics
 
Talk of fundamentality is ubiquitous in philosophy and the empirical sciences, metaphysics and physics in particular. Usually it is supposed to capture the intuitive idea that some items are basic, and everything else is built up from---or can be explained in terms of---those basic items. The seminar aims at addressing the recently flourishing literature on fundamentality. In the first part, we will address general questions about fundamentality: can it be defined, or should we take it as a primitive notion? What theoretical work is fundamentality supposed to do? What entities, if any, are eligible for being fundamental? How does fundamentality relate to some other crucial notions, e.g. supervenience, dependence, invariance? Is there a fundamental level?, and so on. In the second part, we will address specific questions about the role of fundamentality in physics, such as: what is it for a physical theory or a physical law to be fundamental? Does physics provide any evidence for a natural hierarchy of different levels of fundamentality?

Ce cours proposera une introduction à la philosophie des sciences à travers les positions classiques ainsi que les problèmes principaux.

Bien qu'abordant des positions et auteurs classiques en philosophie des sciences, telles que l'empirisme logique, Popper, et Kuhn, nous nous concentrerons sur les problèmes systématiques centraux de la philosophie des sciences: le problème de l'induction et de la surdétermination des théories par les données empiriques, la preuve empirique, l'explication scientifique et le rôle des lois de la nature, la réduction des théories ainsi que le réalisme scientifique.