This course presents a range of “heterodox” approaches to economic analysis. The financial crisis of 2008, and the recession that followed, raised serious questions about the self-professed superiority of standard economic analysis. It stimulated criticism of the uniformity of views that characterises mainstream economics and prompted a renewal of interest in alternative economic perspectives and analyses that had been marginalised in the economics discipline. The objective of this course is to introduce students to these alternative perspectives on political economy. The first part of the course will focus on heterodox perspectives that emerged early in the development of political economy as a discipline. It will pay particular attention to debates about work, production and consumption, capital, wages and profit, as well as competition and crises. It will show how the marginalisation of some of the issues raised in these debates allowed for the creation of an economic canon or orthodoxy in what we now characterise as microeconomics. The second part of the course will present the post-Keynesian approach to macroeconomics, based on Marc Lavoie’s 2014 textbook Post-Keynesian Economics: New Foundations. Emphasis will be put on the way that macroeconomic dynamics can be analysed from a heterodox point of view. The topics addressed will include the determination of effective demand and the level of employment, financial instability and cycles, open economy issues and a social conflict-based approach to inflation. The lectures and discussions in class will be complemented by a 4-session tutorial that will deepen and extend some of the analyses presented in the lectures.